Carbs Quiz

  1. Which of the following are functions of carbohydrates?

1) Growth and Repair
2)Storage
3)Energy source
4) Precursor molecules

A. 1, 2 and 3 are correct

B. 1 and 3 are correct

C. 2 and 4 are correct

D. only 4 is correct

E. all are correct

2.What does sucrose consist of?

A)Alpha Gulcose only.

B)Glucose and fructose

C)Alpha and Beta Glucose

D)Normal Glucose

E) Lipids and fatty acids

3.Which of the following is NOT a carbohydrate?

A)Liver

B)Bread

C)Beer

D)Potato

E)Rice

4.Glucose contains an/a

A)Ketose grouping

B)Alcohol grouping

C)Aldehyde grouping

D)Halogen

E)Mg

5.Fructose contains an/a

A)Ketose grouping

B)Alcohol grouping

C)Aldehyde grouping

D)Halogen

E) Mg

6.Maltose consists of

A)Glucose

B)Fructose

C)Beta glucose only

D)Alpha glucose only

E)Gamma Glucose only

7.Which of the following is a true definition for an anomeric carbon?

A)a free carbon

B)Carbon attached to a specific carbonyll grouping

C)one of two stereoisomers of a cyclic saacharide

D)a carbon bonded to four other atoms

E) Carbon displaying annomerism.

8.Glycogen is found in

A)Plants and animals

B)Animals only

C)Plants only

D)Metals

E) Anomeric carbomds

9.Starch is found in

A)Plants and animals

B)Animals only

C)Plants only

D)Metals

E)None of the above

10.lactose consists of

A)Fructose only

B)Glucose only

C)Fructose and glucose

D)Galactose and glucose

E)None of the above

ATP synthesis and the Mitochondria

Hey guys!

so we just had a little entertaining, CREATIVE, comic about cyanide. A few of you are probably wondering, how is atp made anyways? Yes there were a couple diagrams in the previously ingeniously creative comic strip, however I thought i’d go through a little more in depth with you just about just what REALLY goes on inside our little powerhouses (mitochondria) in our cells.

 

The chemiosmotic hypothesis explains how ATP is generated in the mitochondria :

Within the mitochondria, an ETC, or electron transport chain is found, where NADH and FADH containing electrons, have a high energy potential. This is located within the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

For simplification purposes, one can say that the ETC consists of four complexes which, within the ETC looses an electron, an oxidative process, giving off energy. Complexes 1, 3 and 4 uses this energy to pump protons into the membrane. Complex 2 does not use energy to pump protons even though energy is given off. It instead has succinate dehydrogenase from the TCA cycle, where FADH reacts

The high electrochemical gradient generated by these oxidative processes generates a high proton motive force.

How does it generate this force?

Well, protons cannot cross the inner membrane of the mitochondria matrix. It must therefore pass through an ATP synthase protein molecule, which must undergo a conformational change in order to produce ATP.

ADP + Pi —> ATP

This is generated from the electron motive force.

Cyanide, as seen in the previous comic, bind to comples 4, inhibiting the ETC from functioning.

Glycolysis Paper

Reference :

The Columbia Encyclopedia, s.v. “glycolysis,” accessed April 07, 2013, http://www.credoreference.com/entry/columency/glycolysis

 

In this informative article, the process of glycolysis is described as a metabolic pathway for the degradation of glucose. This important process takes place in most organisms including micro organisms such as yeast and bacteria.

The process is known to be a series of consecutive chemical conversions, containing eleven different enzymes in all. It starts with one molecule of glucose and finishes with the production of two molecules of pyruvic acid. The catabolic pathway involves a six carbon glucose being reduced to the three carbon pyruvic acid. Enery is liberated along the pathway in the form of the molecule adenosine triphosphate also referred to as ATP. It is therefore said that ATP synthesis is coupled into the process of glycolysis.

Usually cellular reactions, especially those involved in the synthesis of different components important to the cell and its functionsm require ATP as a source of energy. Glycolysis acts as a source for this.

The two major stages of this metabolic pathway involves the conversion of glucose to an intermediate sugar, glucose 6- phosphate and finally the conversion to pyruvate. This product is then further metabolized to complete the breakdown of glucose in two possible way based on the organism. In certain organisms, such as bacteria and brewer’s yeast, a process known as homolactic fermentation involves the production of lactic acid as the final product converted from pyruvic acid.

Pyruvic acid can also be converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide by an enzyme-catalyzed two-step process, termed alcoholic fermentation. In the tissues of many organisms, including mammals, glycolysis is a prelude to the complex metabolic machinery that ultimately converts pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide and water with the concomitant production of much ATP and the consumption of oxygen. These are the two different end results of glycolysis

Quiz time !

1) How many reversible enzymes are involved in the process of glycolysis

a) 2

B)4

C)5

D)10

E)8

 

2)How many enzymes are involved in the preparatory phase?

a) 2

B)4

C)5

D)10

E)8

 

3)How many enzymes are used in the pay off phase?

a) 2

B)4

C)5

D)10

E)8

 

4)Select the correct answer using one of the keys as follows for the question

A. 1, 2 and 3 are correct

B. 1 and 3 are correct

C. 2 and 4 are correct

D. only 4 is correct

E. all are correct

Which of the following reactions are reversible?

1. Glucose 6 phosphate —-> Fructose 6 – phosphate

2. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate —> Glyceraldehde 3 phosphate

3. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate —> Dihydroxyacetone

4. Phosphienolpyruvate —> Pyruvate

 

5)  Why is glucose converted to glucose 6 phosphate in glycolysis?

a) to be glycolysized

B) to keep glucose in the cell and reduce reactivity with other metabolic processes

C) to produce ATP

D)to oxidize NADP

E) to increase the reaction rate of the process since glucose 6 phosphate is more reactive

 

6) Which enzyme is responsible for the conversion of Glucose 6 phosphate to Fructose 6 phosphate

a) amylase

B)polymerase

C)hexokinase

Dketoglutarmate

E) No enzyme

 

Glycolysis

Hey Guys as promised this is a continuation of glycloysis in more detail.

But be ware a quiz is coming soon!

h_glycolysisPathway (1)

 

Note: Click on the image to enlarge it in order to see the chemical structures formed in glycolysis.

A word about the diagram:

Everything in this diagram is important in understanding and learning about Glycolysis. The two different phases, the preparatory and pay off phase must be noted along with the enzymes and products involved.

Glycolysis

Hello there! Thought i’d give you a little tease as to what’s to come for Glycolysis

 

Here’s an animation showing the step. Make sure to take a note of it so we can go through it in further detail in the subsequent posts 🙂

glycanim